Bullfrogs are brown to green in color, often with dark brown spots. Their bellies range from white to yellow and are sometimes marked with black spots or patterns. Their hind feet are fully webbed.
Male bullfrogs emit a deep bellow that sounds like “jug-a-rum.” Extremely territorial, they will aggressively defend their land, even wrestling with rivals.
Females lay thousands of eggs (as many as 20,000) during the summer breeding season. In the southern part of a bullfrog’s range, metamorphosis can take as few as 79 days. While in the colder, northern part of their range it can take two to three years.
Ambush predators, bullfrogs will eat almost any animal they can capture and swallow, including worms, insects, crayfish, fish, other frogs, snakes, small turtles, small mammals and even birds.
They are the largest North American frog, weighing up to one pound and measuring up to eight inches.
This highly aquatic frog prefers still, shallow waters, such as the edges of lakes and ponds or sluggish portions of streams and rivers. The bullfrog’s natural range extends from Nova Scotia to central Florida, from the Atlantic coast to Wisconsin, and across the Great Plains to the Rockies. Bullfrogs are prized for the meat of their hind legs, and the demand for frog legs has even led to the deliberate introduction of this species to waters both in the U.S. and abroad.
Bullfrogs are abundant in their native habitat, playing a role in insect control and energy transfer in the ecosystem. In places like California and Arizona, where bullfrogs aren’t naturally occurring but have been introduced by humans, bullfrog populations are skyrocketing. Native populations of western frog species are in decline due to competition for resources and predation. As a result, some of those native frog species are being driven toward extinction.
A wide variety of predators feed on bullfrog eggs, tadpoles or adults. These include aquatic insects, crayfish, fish, other bullfrogs, aquatic turtles, snakes, birds and mammals, including humans.
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