Spanish hogfish are native to the warm waters of the western Atlantic from Bermuda and southern Florida to southern Brazil. They inhabit rocky and algal covered reefs, as well as seagrass meadows.
As Spanish hogfish mature, their diets evolve. As juveniles, they are facultative cleaners—they feed on parasites picked from larger fishes. When they’re adults, however, they feed primarily on invertebrates, such as mollusks, brittle stars, crustaceans and sea urchins.
These hogfish are typically found in small groups with a single dominant male and multiple females. They play an important role in coral and rocky reefs. Juveniles actively eat parasites and adults serve as both predator and prey within their environment.
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