A Blue View: Underwater Volcanoes

From the surface, the ocean appears as a vast and level expanse of water. But miles below lies an intricate landscape of rising mountains, steep valleys, hills, canyons and cliffs—a seascape to rival its terrestrial counterpart. And among it, thousands of volcanoes scatter the seafloor.

Published May 03, 2016


Image via Wikicommons.

Submarine volcanoes, both active and extinct, are abundant along mid-ocean ridges where Earth’s tectonic plates diverge. And, though largely unseen, eruptions beneath the water’s surface can be just as volatile as those on land. If you were to listen to a volcano erupt underwater (like the one in the video below), you may hear the thunderous sound of magma escaping into the sea, muffled but still perceptible, even under thousands of feet of water.

These explosions can have repercussions on land, even the potential to generate tsunamis. But underwater volcanoes still have their redeeming qualities. On a recent expedition, scientists discovered hammerheads and silky sharks living inside one of these deep sea volcanoes off the Solomon Islands.

They may also play a crucial role in coral reef development. When frothy magma containing gas bubbles flows from an underwater volcano and comes into contact with the water, a rapid cooling occurs, trapping pockets of air within the rock and allowing it to float. The resulting stone, called pumice, is sometimes spotted on the ocean’s surface following an undersea eruption.

Pumice can stay afloat for months, traveling thousands of miles before making landfall or becoming waterlogged and sinking to the ocean floor. Along the way, an array of organisms hitchhike their way to other parts of the ocean on these pumice rafts, colonizing new reefs and replenishing those already existing systems. Some of these pumice pieces may also wash ashore, where it’s likely their mobile species, like crabs, would disembark.

When scientists tracked some of these pieces of floating volcanic stone in the southwest Pacific, they found that the pumice traversed nearly 3,000 miles in just eight months. Aided by wind and ocean currents, the stones carried more than 80 species of corals, anemones, barnacles, mollusks and crabs to the coast of Australia and the Great Barrier Reef.

This dispersal of marine life over miles of ocean waters allows new species to settle and populate reef systems. Coral reefs are one of the most biologically diverse habitats in the ocean, and they may have submarine volcanoes to thank.

Previous Post

Featured Stories

Jellies in petri dish Welcome to the Jelly Jungle

Deep inside the Institute of Marine and Environmental Technology (IMET) building, the National Aquarium runs a little-known lab. Here we carry out the propagation of jellies, many of which later end up on exhibit in Jellies Invasion. Read on for a peek into the process!

Read the full story

Cold stunned turtle Cold Stunning: Where, How and Why?

Picture this: You’ve just spent a wonderful, late summer week on Cape Cod, swimming in the ocean and enjoying the sunshine with friends and family. As fall sets in, you know it’s time to head home. You get on the highway, but something strange happens … despite driving for hours, you end up back where you started. You feel sluggish, confused and exhausted. If you were a turtle, you just might be cold-stunned.

Read the full story

Related Stories

A Blue View: Shark Navigation is All in the Nose

Published June 28, 2016

A Blue View: Oyster Gardens

Published June 21, 2016